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The coming of electricity also provides a medium for strengthening the social power of existing institutions. In Uroa electricity strengthened the standing of Islam, the villagers’ religious practices, and their affiliation with global Islamic networks ( Winther 2008 ). Amplifiers and speakers ensured that people would wake up for the 5:00 a.m. call for prayers, tape recorders and television programs conveyed the messages of grand religious leaders, and electricity-driven water pumps ensured access to clean water. Overall, the bright, fluorescent light radiating from the village mosques at night testified to the purity and omnipresent power of Islam in this place, evoking Womens Marie Closed Toe Sandals Vanessa wu vcURS
observation that the organization of the material world does not reflect social relations per se, but their representations. Because electricity’s infrastructures are physically heavy, costly, and enduring, their configuration continues to remind observers of who holds power. Conversely, women’s productive interests were not taken into account during electrification: female institutions in the village such as the mill and kindergarten were never electrified, reflecting women’s subordinated status in Uroa.

At the same time, the introduction of new technologies set negotiations of cultural values into motion. Electricity was quickly integrated into funeral and wedding ceremonies in Uroa by providing light for cooking and other activities at night, as well as powering the amplifiers and speakers to be used during religious talks and for music. Electricity was regarded as so indispensable at funerals and weddings that the electricity company made allowances for increased electricity use during these ceremonies. Similarly, the company allowed husbands with several wives living in separate buildings to save costs by connecting their various houses to the same electric meter, which is against formal regulations. A striking feature of the arrival of electricity was that the practices associated with many institutions and ceremonies were modified; nevertheless, access to electricity reaffirmed rather than changed existing ideologies and power relations.

Figure 1. Uroa at night. Photo by Tanja Winther.

The Zanzibari case exemplifies electricity’s potential to modify the geography of everyday movement, affecting everyday practices and relationships along the way. The desire to watch television prompted men to come home in the evening instead of spending time outside the house with friends. Living rooms were restructured to allow for gender-mixed settings of television viewing while still keeping a proper moral order. Due to the prestige of the modern couple hosting television-viewing time, the former gender hierarchy was temporarily challenged, elevating the female host’s social position above that of male guests. In general, people would socialize more in the evenings and go to bed later, leaving spouses with less time for intimacy. Moreover, outdoor space was regarded as safer to humans because spirits were thought to prefer darkness and tended to withdraw from (en)lightened villages. With electric light, villagers reclaimed outdoor spaces at night that were formerly the domain of occult forces.

Special Eurobarometer Report - EU Citizen's views on development, cooperation and aid. Fieldwork November-December 2016.This survey follows on from previous ones on the topic, including those conducted annually since20096. The objectives of the current survey are to:Investigate Europeans’ level of information about development aid in general;Assess the attitudes of Europeans towards the importance...
The European Year for Development 2015 was a pan-European communication campaign for which the Commission, Member States, civil society organisations and several other stakeholders joint efforts to bring development cooperation closer to European citizens.
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Brussels, October 22 - The EU Development Education and Awareness Raising (DEAR) programme fair opened today in Brussels with the welcome address of Fernando Frutuoso de Melo, Director General for International Cooperation and Development.
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The project enables the delivery of legal aid services to vulnerable women in Xaythany district, increases awareness on Gender Based Violence and trains community paralegals and village authorities.
The project aims at encouraging a culture of constructive debate and critical thinking in Afghanistan by developing a local media sector that values in-depth reporting, with a focus on women’s rights
This is a 2-year media project supporting Afghan women. The overall objective is to create an enabling environment for Afghan women to participate in public life.

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The first phase of the Maybank Highway Improvements, including repaving Maybank Highway and the addition of a 4-foot bike lane is complete. The second phase, involving adding a thirdlane from the Stono River Bridge to Main Road on Maybank Highway is expected to be completed by the fall of 2018. The third phase, which creates the northern and southern pitchfork roads, has been designed, however, permits have yet to be issued and the County has not issued funding for the construction of both roads arguing that they only have enough funds to complete the northern pitchfork. Delays have ensued due to the SCDOT requiring new turning facilities on River Road near the northern pitchfork after the City of Charleston approved a new development across the road. The City of Charleston worked with the adjacent developers to design a solution for River Road that eliminated the need for additional turning lanes by creating a roundabout at the entrance of one of the new neighborhoods and connecting it with the other new developments through an internal grid network of streets keeping in the spirit of the Johns Island Community Plan.

In May, 2018, Charleston County voted to once again delay issuing the necessary funds to move forward on construction of the northern pitchfork in order to do yet another traffic study for the roads. These constant delays by county officials do nothing but keep the residents of Johns Island stuck in a daily experience of gridlock while trying to enter the island from James Island.

About the Project

The bottleneck at the intersection of Maybank Highway and River Road is a daily frustration for Johns Island residents. “The pitchfork plan” is a solution that will give drivers a chance to turn north or south to their destination sooner and avoid the bottleneck. Widening Maybank Highway, however, would create a 5-lane high-speed thoroughfare, cutting down Grand trees, attracting big box/strip retail and automobile dependent businesses, thereby destroying the character of Johns Island. Developing without adherence to local character and heritage will transform our unique sea island into monotonous suburbia.

When Charleston County staff began moving forward on the plans for Maybank Highway improvements, it became apparent that the design standards required by Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), SCDOT, and other applicable federal laws for Maybank Highway were not in harmony with the community, the 2007 Johns Island Community Plan prepared by the City of Charleston, and the Urban Land Institute (ULI) Technical Assistance Panel (TAP) 
Recommendations as adopted by 
Charleston County. To eliminate these obstacles, it was recommended that the scope of the Maybank Highway Improvement Project be revised to include only improvements to Maybank Highway from the Paul J. Gelegotis Bridge over the Stono River to River Road. Further, based on the Conservation League’s suggestion, it was recommended that the road section from River Road to the intersection with Main Road/Bohicket Road be resurfaced with the addition of 4-foot wide paved shoulders to accommodate bike lanes. It was anticipated that this refined scope could be designed, permitted, and constructed with the funding allocated by the Charleston County half-cent sales tax and would not require additional funding from the CHATS guideshare, thus alleviating regulatory obstacles. On April 22, 2014, after a highly contentious debate, Charleston County Council voted to recommend approval of the revised Maybank Pitchfork plan using only local funds.
 This decision is exactly the type of innovative, low cost approach to improving our road system for pedestrians and bikes and preserving Johns Island’s character and quality of life that should be applied every time a project is considered.

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